When this occurs in a soil that is saturated with water, water will be squeezed out of the soil.

The magnitude of consolidation can be predicted by many different methods.

Due to secondary compression some of the highly viscous water between the points of contact is forced out.

Secondary compression is given by the formula is the length of time for achieving 95% consolidation The time for consolidation to occur can be predicted. This is especially true in saturated clays because their hydraulic conductivity is extremely low, and this causes the water to take an exceptionally long time to drain out of the soil.

The soil which had its load removed is considered to be overconsolidated.


These tests can be costly due to expensive equipment and the long period of time they require.The preconsolidation pressure can help determine the largest overburden pressure that can be exerted on a soil without irrecoverable volume change.This type of volume change is important for understanding shrinkage behavior, crack and structure formation and resistance to shearing stresses.A soil which is currently experiencing its highest stress is said to be normally consolidated and to have an OCR of one.A soil could be considered underconsolidated immediately after a new load is applied but before the excess pore water pressure has had time to dissipate.

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